Introduction to water Filter technologies

Introduction to water Filter technologies

Boiler and cooling water systems

Beside the Hot waters Heaters, Cooling towers are used in HVAC systems that have multiple water source heat pumps that share a common piping water loop. In this type of system, the water circulating inside the water loop removes heat from the condenser of the heat pumps whenever the heat pumps are working in the cooling mode, then the externally mounted cooling tower is used to remove heat from the water loop and reject it to the atmosphere. By contrast, when the heat pumps are working in heating mode, the condensers draw heat out of the loop water and reject it into the space to be heated. When the water loop is being used primarily to supply heat to the building, the cooling tower is normally shut down (and may be drained or winterized to prevent freeze damage), and heat is supplied by other means, usually from separate boilers; TYW professional water treatment consultant will evaluate the water and the operating conditions of the cooling tower and recommend an appropriate range for the cycles of concentration. The use of water treatment chemicals, pretreatment such as water softening, pH adjustment, and other techniques can affect the acceptable range of cycles of concentration.


Disinfection is a process where a significant percentage of pathogenic organisms are killed and we know that performing it in the final stage (POU – point of use) is the best solution for warm countries. We use numerous alternative disinfection processes in our water treatment systems, depending on the application. It doesn’t matter if your business is a Hotel, an Industry or simply you want to use the water from your house’s faucet; for us what really matters is that you can Trust Your Water.

Complete solutions ensuring 100% disinfection efficiency can be found in our standard lines or built-by-request to perfectly fulfill your need. Our main aim is to achieve efficient disinfection with the minimal use of chemicals, which is better for the environment, people and the machinery, reducing operating costs. Trust Your Water offers the full range of disinfection technologies (chlorine dioxide, ozone, UV light, hypochlorous acid-HCIO) and can even combine them.


Filtration is the oldest water treatment technique used by man. Removing the suspended solids present in the water is only one of the results you can achieve with our filters. Point-of-use filters for HO.RE.CA business and household applications include granular-activated carbon filters (GAC), metallic alloy filters, ion exchange resin (IER), and microfiltration cartridge. Our products are the best solution to filter your water and remove the bad taste and smell that is typically associated with tap water.

Our point-of-use microfiltration devices can be directly installed at source to protect users against mycobacteria and potentially harmful water pathogens. Our filters’ line includes depth filtration with automatic backwash, self-cleaning filters and several customized solutions. The compact design of our systems allows us to minimize the footprint of the installation, saving precious space for you and your business.

Activated Carbon

What is it?

A filter with activated carbon is a proven technology to remove certain chemicals from water, particularly organic chemicals. The activated carbon filters perform a chemical-physical adsorbent action towards the treated elements and for their own characteristics are also used in the waste water for the reduction of the COD, color, etc. A whole house water softener is installed at point on the home’s water supply plumbing that will result in the treatment of all water that travels to any faucet or fixture in the home. It removes the chemicals before it can be ingested, breathed in or absorbed by the skin during washing or bathing.

How it works?

The active carbons can be of vegetable or mineral nature: with their extremely porous structure they are able to trap even the largest molecules while their enormous surface allows instead having a great adsorbent capacity thanks to which the molecules dissolved in the water stick to them.

These constructive characteristics make the activated carbon ideal for the adsorption of multiple types of pollutants dissolved in the water such as mineral oils, BTEX, phenochlorides and yeasts.

The activated carbons are usually contained inside a cylinder where the water to be treated is constantly passed. Their adsorption capacity depends on the substances that are treated and once they have been used up they must be replaced, but occasionally a backwashing of the bed prevents the formation of lumps that can affect the correct functioning of the filter. Often these backwashes are automatically managed by a control panel and suitably sized valves; in some cases the filters can be manual and these operations must be performed manually.

When to use it?

Activated carbon is used in a wide range of applications for both industrial and residential uses that include drinking water purification, ground and municipal water treatment, etc. Water intended for human consumption, or for industrial use, may contain unwanted chemicals, such as excess chlorine, chlorine-amines, solvents, oils, and pesticides, substances that cause unpleasant odors or flavors.


The most obvious benefit of using activated charcoal is the cleaner, purified and better tasting water you get at the end of the process. These constructive characteristics make the activated carbon ideal for the adsorption of multiple types of pollutants dissolved in the water such as mineral oils, BTEX, PHENOCHLORIDES AND YEASTS.

Makes water healthier: Not only do charcoal filters remove a lot of the nasty stuff from water; they can add things back into your water to make it healthier. Activated charcoal can add important minerals, such as calcium, magnesium and iron back into your water to improve the water quality.

Improves the flavor: Many people dislike the taste of tap water, complaining it tastes metallic or has an off-putting aroma. This taste is often due to the additives, such as chlorine, that are added to tap water to kill bacteria and pathogens found in reservoirs. Though this is a necessary process to protect public health, it often means people avoid drinking tap water, putting them at risk for dehydration, or they buy plastic bottled water, which is bad for the environment. Carbon filters not only adsorb the nasty tasting chemicals, but also highly effective at removing odors as well, making your drinking water much more palatable.


What is it?

The qualities of silver and copper where already known in the past: silver is an effective bacterium and a virus killer used even for burns and open wounds; copper is now recognized by the best killer of algae and even copper oxides and sulphates are used in pesticides, algaecides and fungicides. Copper and silver ionization is disinfection process, primarily used to control legionella, the bacteria responsible for Legionnaires’ disease.

Copper-Silver Ionization is the most environmentally responsible approach to water disinfection. It saves the needless energy consumption of constant hot water (thermal) and excessive use of hazardous chemicals such as chlorine.

Nowadays copper and silver, together, are used as powerful disinfectants and as protectors of our health. From the pool and the hospital to the cold water in our homes, the disinfection of copper and silver always ensures a closer control.

How it works?

Copper-Silver ionization occurs through electrolysis: an ion, an electrically charged atom, has a positive charge when it yields an electron and a negative charge when it receives an electron. A positively charged ion is called a cation and a negatively charged ion is called anion. During ionization, the atoms are transformed into cations and anions. When copper-silver ionization is applied, positively charged copper (Cu + and Cu2 +) and silver ions (Ag +) are formed.

Electrically charged copper ions (Cu2 +) contained in the water search for particles of opposite polarity, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi that can host genus Legionella, a pathogenic group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis.

The positively charged copper ions form electrostatic compounds with the cell walls of the negatively charged microorganisms. These electrostatic compounds block its growth and multiplication, thus causing death.

When to use?

Experience has shown that cooling towers, evaporative condensers and hot & cold water systems in a wide variety of workplaces present a risk of exposure to Legionella bacteria. Other systems such as humidifiers, and hair washers, spa, baths and pools, car/bus washers, wet scrubbers, indoor fountains, and water features also present a risk.

Copper ions can bond with some organic compounds, therefore filtration prior to treatment is recommended. Prefiltration is needed especially for producers who use pond water or experience buildup of organic matter such as algae and humic acids in recirculated water.


Wanting to compare this system with others we can say that copper-silver ionization has a greater effect than most other disinfectants. It, in fact, provides long term residual disinfection as the ions can remain effective for long periods of time once they are released into the water.

Energy consumption – As Silver and Copper levels become stabilised and effective, temperatures in the system can be lowered leading to lower heating costs, therefore commonly where temperature was the primary control for legionella, elevated hot water temperatures are no longer required.

Non corrosive – Copper Silver does not corrode metals in the distribution system such as copper, galvanized steel and aluminum.

Savings in time and maintenance of the system – less time is required for cleaning and disinfecting the system, biofilm is attacked and removed in water systems, reducing nutrient sources such as sediment, scale, corrosion and both organic and inorganic matter. Less maintenance is required on tanks, clarifiers, taps, TMVs and shower heads.


What is it?

Because of its excellent quality of disinfection and oxidation, ozone is widely used for drinking water treatment. It can be added at several points within the treatment system, for example during pre-oxidation, intermediate oxidation or final disinfection.

All natural water sources contain natural organic matter. For the production of pure drinking water, removal is one of the main tasks in modern water treatment. Ozone, like any other oxidant, oxidizes organic matter and easily becomes biodegradable.

Ozone works according to the oxidation principle. When the charged static ozone molecule (O3) comes in contact with something "able to oxidize", the charge of the ozone molecule flows directly over it. This happens is because ozone is very unstable and tends to re-form itself in its original form (O2). Ozone can oxidize with all kinds of materials, but also with smells and micro-organisms like viruses, molds and bacteria.

How it works?

Ozone is a more effective disinfectant than chlorine, chloramines and even to chlorine dioxide. Several studies have shown that ozone, unlike the products based on chlorine, can deactivate resistant microorganisms. However, because ozone decomposes rapidly in water, its duration in aqueous solutions is very short (less than one hour). Consequently, the ozone is less suitable for residual disinfection and can only be used in special cases (especially in small distribution systems).

Ozone comes in contact with the cell wall of the bacteria. The cell wall is vital to the bacteria because it ensures the organism can maintain its shape. As ozone molecules make contact with the cell wall, a reaction called an oxidative burst occurs which literally creates a tiny hole in the cell wall. A newly created hole in the cell wall has injured the bacterium. The bacterium begins to lose its shape while ozone molecules continue creating holes in the cell wall. After thousands of ozone collisions over only a few seconds, the bacterial wall can no longer maintain its shape and the cell dies.

How to use?

Ozone disinfection is generally used at medium- to large-sized plants after at least secondary treatment. Another common use for ozone in wastewater treatment is odor control. An ozonation system can be considered relatively complex to operate and maintain compared to chlorination. Ozone generation uses a significant amount of electrical power. Thus, constant attention must be given to the system to ensure that power is optimized for controlled disinfection performance. The key process control parameters are dose, mixing, and contact time. An ozone disinfection system strives for the maximum solubility of ozone in wastewater, as disinfection depends on the transfer of ozone to the wastewater.


There are no harmful residuals that need to be removed after ozonation because ozone decomposes rapidly. Ozone is generated onsite, and thus, there are fewer safety problems associated with shipping and handling. After ozonation, there is no re-growth of microorganisms, except for those protected by the particulates in the wastewater stream.

On a base average, ozone is 200 times stronger than chlorine and is effective in destroying organic contaminants, pathogens, and a variety of inorganic materials, such as suntan lotions, oils, and cosmetics.

For all of ozone's inherent power, it is perfectly safe and will not adversely affect people, pets, or equipment when properly installed. Ozone also does not irritate skin, hair, nails, or eyes, will not degrade swimwear, and will not damage any hardscapes, covers, fittings, or any other equipment within the water.

Ozone is the cost-effective sanitizer. It helps to reduce the need for repeated chemical purchase costs, dosing costs, water turn rates, and for storage and management. When used in pools, ozone will effectively reduce chemical needs by 60-90% depending

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